Project Description

Telecommunications is an infrastructure in which rapid technological advance has been occurring and the risk of obsolesce is comparatively higher than other infrastructural sectors. Telecommunications is also one of the few infrastructure sectors, where facility is never really completed as the telecommunications network that is established has to be either constantly expanded to achieve higher consumer penetration or has to be constantly upgraded to allow the network to provide the latest services possible. This growth and need in the industry demands skilled experts with superlative Legal knowledge.

The increasing number of Countries involved in space activities has emphasized the need for effective laws and policies on space activities not just on an international level, but also on the national level. The successful operation of space law, policies and institutions in a country relies on the presence of suitable professionals. With the more innovation in technology and need for new and advanced techniques require the blend of various skills to succeed in the Field.

The combination of Telecommunication and Space Law is such a unique blend which enables one to meet the needs of rapidly expanding industry. To meet the need and to enable the research and study in Space and Telecommunications Law, NALSAR University of Law through its Centre for Aerospace and Defence Laws (CADL), had initiated to offer Course in this area. Through this programme NALSAR University seeks to address the need and promotion of legal shortcomings in the space and telecommunications Laws.

This idiosyncratic Course enables the learner to gain an understanding in both Space and Telecommunications Law. The curriculum of the programme includes the General Principles of Law, International Space Law, telecommunication Laws both International and national, Technology and its relation to Space and Telecommunications, IPR Issues in Space and Telecommunication technology, commercialization and issues relating to the Cyberspace and security threats, laws relating to remote sensing and geospatial data and also contemporary issues in space and telecommunication sector. This amalgamation of the subjects enables a non-legal person to understand the laws and a non-technical person know the technicality.

This programme is suitable for those interested in the legal, space and telecommunication industry. One can make career prospects in the ministry or a space or telecommunication agency if he/she wishes to work for the government. One can also work with the space or telecommunication industry in a commercial space or telecommunication company or at a law firm which specializes in space or telecommunication law. If one prefers academia, working at a university or a research institute is also a good option.


a. Bachelor’s Degree or an equivalent Degree in any discipline from any recognized University; or
b. 3-year Degree/Diploma in Aircraft Maintenance Engineering (AME) along with three year’s industry experience.

Students appearing for the final year examination of Graduation / Engineering are also eligible to apply.


NALSAR University of Law, Post Box No.1, Justice City, Shameerpet, Medchal District


The Master’s Programme will have four semesters. Each Semester will have Onsite intense sessions by the subject experts, followed by Online session where participants will work on the case studies and assignments and upload them on the dedicated web platform / submit them by email. The students can contact / communicate by email with the subject experts pertaining to various queries on the concerned subject. Relevant course material will be uploaded on the website and can be accessed through their login id.

Face to Face contact sessions will be conducted for seven days in a semester at Hyderabad by the subject experts. Suggested reference guidance would be provided at the contact sessions. Each subject shall consist of 15 teaching hours which will come to 60 teaching hours per semester for three semesters. Case study analysis will be part of the concerned subjects and will be discussed in onsite sessions. Attendance at the onsite session is not compulsory.

The conduct of the programme involves uploading of updated course material, assignments etc. on the website.

Click Here to Apply Now –


Code Subject Marks Credits
Semester I
1.1.1. General Principles of Law 100 5
1.1.2. Space Technology and Law 100 5
1.1.3. International Space Law 100 5
1.1.4. Information Technology and Cyber Laws 100 5
Semester II
1.2.5. International Telecommunication Laws 100 5
1.2.6. Space Technology, Telecommunications and IPRs Issues 100 5
1.2.7. Space Commercialization and Legal Issues 100 5
1.2.8. Space Security: Laws and Policies 100 5
2.3.9. Telecommunication Laws in India 100 5
2.3.10. Law of Remote Sensing and Geospatial Data 100 5
2.3.11. Trade Laws relating to Space and Telecommunications 100 5
2.3.12. Space Law and Contemporary Issues 100 5
2.4.13. Dissertation 200 6
(written: 150 marks + viva: 50 marks)

1.1.1. General Principles of Law

Module I:

Introduction to Law, Nature and Sources of Law,  Legal Principles of Air & Space Law,  Theory and Nature of Political Institutions, Constitution of India, Preamble, Fundamental Rights, Directive Principles of State Policy, Fundamental Duties, Relationship between Union & State, Emergency and Amendment            Provisions;

Module II:

Indian Judicial and Legal System, Historical Evolution of the   Indian Legal System, Administration          of Justice in India, Development of Legal Profession in India, Indian Advocates Act, Adversarial and Inquisitorial System, Indian Judiciary, Civil and Criminal Court Structure  and Procedure  in India, Quasi-Judicial Framework,  Alternate Means of Dispute Resolution;

Module III:

Fundamental Aspects of Law and its relevance to Space Law, Law of Contracts, Law of Torts, Law of Crimes, Law of Property, Law of Consumer Protection, Law of Insurance, Law of Company, Law of Environment, Law of Cyber Space and Regulation, Law of Intellectual Property Rights, Law of Competition;

Module IV:  

Legal Research Methodology and   Project Writing Techniques,    Meaning and Objectives of Research, Types and Significance of Legal Research, Stages Involved in Legal       Research Process, Criteria  of Good Research, Current Trends in Legal Research, Problems Encountered by Researchers in India, Guidelines for researcher of project/seminar papers

1.1.2.  Space Technology and Law

Module I:

Introduction- This course examines a number of space and satellite law issues including: international space law treaties, Customary international space law including the history and theory of space law; resolutions: recommendations; cases; International inter-governmental space organizations and their move to corporatization; The position of commercial players; natural and juristic persons; joint ventures; The role and functioning of the International Telecommunications Union; State regulation on space; a comparative approach, Satellite telecommunications, Satellite broadcasting, Satellite technologies-Factual Background and Introduction to Technology-History and Development of Space Technology-Spaceflight, Satellites, Commercialization of space, Alien life, Living in space;

Module II:

Technology of Space Applications – Earth Observation Data in Disaster Management, Satellite Data in the Analysis of the Catastrophic Flood, Satellite Data for Disaster Monitoring, Satellite Overview of Sentinel Asia, Optical/Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Observation;

Module III:

Relationship between Space Technology and Law of Space Applications- Astronomy, Aerospace Engineering, Peaceful and Non-peaceful uses, Space Applications for Remote Sensing, Environmental Protection, Disaster Predication, Warning and Mitigation, Management of Earth Resources, Satellite Navigation and Location Systems, Space Communication & Application.

1.1.3.  International Space Law

Module I:

Introduction to International Law and International Space Law; Introduction to International Law, Nature of International Law, Relationship between International Laws and Domestic Laws, Sources and Subjects of International Law and International Space Law, Delimitation between Outer Space and Air Space;

Module II:

International Space Law: Hard Law Approach, Outer Space Treaty 1967, Liability Convention 1972, Rescue Agreement 1968, Registration Convention 1975, Moon Agreement 1979;

Module III:

International Space Law (Soft Law); UNESCO Declaration on Satellite Broadcasting 1972, Remote Sensing Principles 1992, Nuclear Power Sources Principles: 1986, UNIDROIT Space Protocol 2012, Declaration of Legal Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Uses of Outer Space (1963), ESA Convention 1980, Benefits Declaration 1966;

Module IV:

International Space Law Recent Developments, Commercialization of Space Activities, Space Tourism, Protection of Intellectual Property Rights in Outer Space, Copyright in Outer Space Activities, Environmental Concerns in Outer Space, Space Debris, Militarization of Outer Space, Earth Observation: A developing country’s perspective, · Private Participation in Outer Space Activities

1.1.4. Information Technology and Cyber Law

Module I:

Introduction to Information Technology Law – Need for Information Technology and Law, Relationship between Law and Technology, the Current State of Information Technology in Legal Practice, Information Technology and Law: Barriers to Progress;

Module II:

International Law on Information Technology and Cyber Law, Evolution of Information Technology in international realm-World Summit on the Information Society-Geneva summit-Tunisia summit Role of UNESCO and International Telecommunications Union International treaties and bodies -I CANN – lnternet Governance Forum Reseaux IP Europeans Network Coordination, Centre-Anti Counterfeiting Trade Agreement – Harmonization Of Cyber Laws, Development of Cyber Laws Post 2001, Cyber Legislations Worldwide, UNCITRAL Model Law on E-commerce;

Module III:

Information Technology and Cyber Law in India, History of Information Technology and Cyber Laws in India, Information Technology Act 2000 and the subsequent 2006 & 2008 amendments,  Cyber Crimes, Regulatory Authorities for Implementation of Cyber Law in India, Cyber Law Jurisprudence in India;

Module IV:

Contemporary Challenges for Information Technology and Cyber Laws in India,  Computer Forensics, E-commerce, M-Commerce in India, Satellite Hacking, Cyber attacks Insurance Computer Insecurity, Hackers, White Hat Hackers, Grey Hat Hackers,  Black Hat Hackers, Internet Crime, Internet Fraud.

1.2.5. International Telecommunications Laws

Module I:

Introduction to Telecommunication Industry, Conceptual Framework for International Telecommunication Laws, Impact of Globalization on the International Telecom Industry, Overview of the Global State of Telecommunication, Challenges of Investment, Policy and Regulations Historical regulation and how the convergence between telephone, television and computer services can upset existing regulatory apparatuses;

Module II:

International Telecom Laws, Introduction to Telecom Regulations, Regulatory Organizations. Regulations of the Telecom Sector by ITU, Recent Development in ITU Regulations, Trade in Telecom Services;

Module III:

International Institutions for Regulation of Telecom Sector, International Telegraph Union, International Telecom Union, World Trade Organization, Jurisdiction among different international and national bodies and conflicts among nation States;

Module IV:

Contemporary Challenges for the International Telecom Industry,  Privatization of the Telecommunication Industry, Role of IPR in Information and Communication Technologies, Telecommunications in Developing Countries, Usage of Information and Communication Technology in Telecom Industry, International Allocation of Spectrum for Wireless Services and Orbital Slots for Satellites; International Copyright/Broadcasting Issues and Issues Surrounding Submarines Cables

1.2.6 Space Technology, Telecommunications and IPRs Issues

Module I:

International Law of IPR, Introduction to IPR, International Convention on Patents, Industrial Designs and Trademarks, Law relating to International Copyright Conventions, Role of International Organization in Protection of Intellectual Property Rights;

Module II:

Relationship between IPR and Outer Space & Telecom Activities, International Law of Outer Space, Intellectual Property Rights in Outer Space Endeavors, Intellectual Property and Space Inventions, National Jurisdiction and Exclusive Rights in Geospatial Data and Databases, Terrestrial Laws for Protection of Geo-spatial Data, Space Activities: Need for International Law and IPR Protection;

Module III:

IPR Protection for Outer Space Activities & Telecom Sector in India, IPR Protection Laws of India, Need for IPR Protection Regime for Space Activities of India, Relations of IPR with Spatial Data, India’s Telecom Sector and Need for IPR Protection, IPR and Space Activities: Indian Perspectives;

Module IV:

Contemporary Developments, IPR and Space Activities: Emerging Issues, Indian Defence Industry and Protection of IPR Regime

1.2.7. Space Commercialization and Legal Issues

Module I:

Introduction to Global Space Activities and Space Commerce, Global Space Economy,  Inputs to Space Economy, Civilian Space Programmes In Government Budget Appropriations or Outlays For R&D, National Budgets For Space, Insurance Market For Space Activities, Innovation For Future Economic Growth: Patents, Space Launch Activities Worldwide, New Space Technology and Innovative Applications, National Space Commerce and Economy: Comparative Analysis,  Sharing the benefits of Space Law and Economic Development, Space Law: Thinking Globally;

Module II:

International Space Law on Space Commerce, Space Commerce Governance: Overview of the Legal Regime, Contemporary Space Industry, Space Commerce and its benefits, Commercial Development of the Outer Space Sector, International Space Law for Space Commerce: A Critique, Commercial Launches, Legal and Policy Perspectives , Space Commercialization and Third World;

Module III:

Space Commerce and India,  Space Commercialization and Third World, Organizational Structure for Space Commerce Governance in India, Space Economy of India, Space Products and Services: Commercial Perspectives, Regulatory Framework for Space Activities in India, Commercialization and Privatization of Space Industry India: Emerging Legal Challenges;

Module IV:

Contemporary Challenges to Space Commerce, Transporting Legal Systems for Property Rights from Earth to Stars, Space Debris: Developing Countries Perspective, Challenges for Space Law in the era of Globalization, Outer Space and Continuous Need for Multilateral Treaty Making, The Continuous Need for Space Law-making, Proliferation of Negotiating Forums

1.2.8.  Space Security: Laws and Policies

Module  I:

International Space Security, Introduction, Concept and Nature of Space Security, The emergence of space domain and perspectives on space security, Space technology and its dual use nature, from telecommunication satellites, remote sensing satellites and debris collectors to laser, Space strategy: towards the space battlefield or operational sanctuary , Space related hazards and threats , Territory and the geopolitics of outer space;

Module II:

Laws Governing Space Security, United Nations Legal Principles, COPUOS (1959), The Outer Space Treaty, 1967, The Rescue Agreement , 1968, The Liability Convention, 1972, The registration Convention, 1975, The Moon Treaty, 1979, PAROS UNGA Resolution: 1981 UN GGE: 3rd GGE, (PPWT) (2008) – Treaty between Russia and China, The EU Code of Conduct for Outer Space Activities (2010),

Module III:

Space Security Law: Global Perspectives, Space weaponisation, Space and environment security, Congested Space: Spectrum Crowding, SSA, Orbital Debris, Remote sensing v. State and individual security, Space situational awareness, Satellite data security, National Security, Space security and global cooperation;

Module IV:

Space Security Issues in India India’s Space Policy, India’s Military Capability in Space, Threats to India’s space assets, India’s military options in space, Role of Indian Space and Defence Agencies towards Space Security.

2.3.9. Telecommunication Laws In India

Module I:

Introduction and Evolution of the Telecom Industry in India, Overview of the Telecom Sector in India, Evolution of the Telecom Industry, Performance and Reforms on the Indian Telecom Sector, India in 1980s and 1990s: Impact of Liberalization, Globalization and Privatization;

Module II:

Legal and Regulatory Framework of Telecom Laws and Policies, Overview of the Regulatory Framework, Indian Telecom Sector: Legal and Regulatory Framework, Telecom Laws and Policies in India;

Module III:

Dispute Resolution Mechanism in the Indian Telecom Sector, Introduction to Dispute Resolution, Current Disputes and Resolution Approaches,

Dispute Resolution in the Indian Telecom Sector, DSM in Telecom: Relating International to National Practices.

2.3.10. Law of Remote Sensing and Geospatial Data

Module I:

Introduction to Remote Sensing, Concept & Importance of Remote Sensing, Basics of Remote Sensing and Geo-Spatial Data, Remote Sensing as a Source of Information, Properties of Remote Sensing, Eth!cal Considerations in Remote Sensing;


Technical Aspects of Issues of Remote Sensing, Fields of Application of Remote Sensing, Revival of ASPRS Code of Ethics: Emerging Issues , Human Vision and Multispectral Remote Sensing: Legal Issues, Curtilage and Open Fields, Filtering, Digital Ortho-Photography, LIDAR and FLIRs (Forward Looking Infrared Thermal Scanning);

Module III:

Legal Aspects of Remote Sensing, Reasonable Expectation of Privacy, Commercial Information Market, Direct Criminal Activity, Regulation of Remote Sensing by Satellites, UN Principles on Remote Sensing, Bilateral and Multilateral Arrangements or Agreements relating to collection of Remote Sensing data, Processing and Distribution of Remote Sensing Data, GIS: Legal Issues- IPR and Copyright & Neighboring Rights, Data Protection;

Module IV:

Contemporary Issues in Remote Sensing, Security Implications of High Quality Remote Sensing Imagery, Remote Sensing Evidence and Environmental Law, Third Party Access to Data Obtained via Remote Sensing: International Legal Theory versus Economic and Political Reality, Remote Sensing for Public Safety, Remote Sensing and State Sovereignty, Community Remote Sensing and Legal Issues

2.3.11. Trade Laws relating to Space and Telecommunications

Module- I:

Fundamentals of International Trade Law, Introduction to International Trade Law: Codification and Development of International Trade Law by the League of Nations and the United Nations, Present Scenario of International Trade Law, Basic Principles and concepts of International Trade Law, MFN, National Treatment, Non-Discrimination, Transparency and Sovereignty, Free and Fair Trade, Binding Commitments, World Trade Organization, General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs (GATT), General Agreement on Trade in Services;

Module II:

International Trade in Telecom Services, Need  to regulate trade in telecom services, regulatory organizations at global and national level, Role of WTO, ITU, Service Sector of Telecom Industry, Service Negotiations, WTO Regime for Telecommunication Services, Fourth Protocol, Annex on Telecommunications, Implementation of WTO Commitments;

Module III:

Trade and Outer Space Activities, Legal and Policy Aspects of Launch Services, Privatization of the Launch Services, Commercialization of Launch Services Sector, Globalization of the Launch Services Sector, Launches With Multiple Payloads And Reusable Launch Vehicles, Cross-Jurisdictional Launch Operations, IPR Protection, WTO and Space Activities, Space Investments and Evaluation of Investor Affability;

Module IV:

Trade and Telecom and Outer Space: Emerging Legal Issues

2.3.12. Space Law and Contemporary Issues

Module I:

Emerging Challenges in Space Law, Future of Space Law, Global Public Interest in Outer Space, Legal Aspects of Planetary Exploration, Protection of Intellectual Property in Outer Space, ICAO’s Involvement in Outer Space Activities,

Module II:

Satellite Telecommunication & Global Mobile Personal Communication Satellite Services, INTELSAT and IMARSAT: Need for Structural Change, Satellite Communications: The Legal Gap, GMPCS, Developing Countries Perspectives, Direct Broadcasting Satellites, Developing Countries and the Law;

Module III:

Military Use of Outer Space, Status of Outer Space Treaty during War and Measures Short of War, China’s ASAT: A demonstrated need for legal reform, Space Debris and International Law,

Module IV:

Commercialization of Space Activities, Commercial Developments in Outer Space: Need for New Treaties, Legal and Policy Aspects of Providing Launch Services provided by Governmental and Private providers, Space Tourism-Space in Private Hands, Space Tourism – Future Policy and Legal Challenges, Space Tourism Activities- Emerging Challenges to Air and Space Law, Draft Protocol on matters to Space Assets : New Developments and Perspectives for Success;

Module V:

Dispute Settlement in Space

2.4.13. Dissertation


Bachelor’s Degree or an equivalent Degree in any discipline from any recognized University

Students appearing for the final year examination of Graduation / Engineering are also eligible to apply.


The admission is based on the performance in Statement of Purpose (SOP), Group Discussion and Interview.


Total Course fee Rs. 50,000/- (for Defence personnel –Rs. 30,000/-)
payable in two installments
Repeat Examination Fee Rs. 500/- per subject
Re-registration Fee Rs. 5000/- per subject


Code Subjest Marks Credits
Semester I
1.1.1. General Principles of Law 100 3
1.1.2.  Remote Sensing Technology and Laws 100 3
1.1.3. GIS Technology and Law 100 3
Semester II
1.2.4.   Coastal Mapping and Coastal Zone Management 100 3
1.2.5.   Satellite Technology, GIS, RS and IPR Issues 100 3
1.2.6. Dissertation 100 3


The Post-Graduate Diploma Programme will have two semesters. Each Semester will have Onsite intense Sessions by the subject experts, followed by Online session where participants will work on the case studies and project assignments and upload them on the dedicated web platform. Under the mode of intense e-learning process, the students can access with subject experts pertaining to various queries on the concerned subject. Relevant course material and one to one contact with the subject experts will be through the web. Onsite sessions will be conducted for three days in alternate month at the selected centers by the subject experts. Suggested reference guidance would be provided at the onsite sessions. Each paper shall consist of 14 teaching hours. Case study analysis will be part of the concerned subjects and will be discussed in onsite sessions. Attendance at the onsite session is compulsory. Attendance shall carry 10 marks.

The conduct of the programme involves uploading of updated course material (assignments, projects etc.) on dedicated website.


6.1 Each paper shall carry 100 marks. The distribution of marks shall be as follows:

Attendance at onsite sessions : 10 Marks
Project work (Two projects of 15 marks each) : 30 Marks
End Semester Examination : 60 Marks

Submission of Dissertation
Written Report : 70 Marks
Viva-Voce Exam : 30 Marks

6.2 Award of Grades

The performance of the students would be evaluated on a seven point scale with corresponding grade values as mentioned below:

Percentage of Marks Grade Grade Value
80 and above O (outstanding) 8
75-79 D 7.5
70-74 A++ 7
65-69 A+ 6
60-64 A 5
55-59 B+ 4
50-54 B 3
Below 50 F(fail) 0

6.3 Calculation of CGPA

Cumulative Grade Point Average (CGPA) is arrived at by dividing the sum of the products of Grade Values and the Course Credits in each course by the total number of credits in all the subjects.

6.4 A candidate to be successful should obtain a minimum of 50% marks or the equivalent grade, i.e., B in every course / Dissertation. However, the candidate who fails to obtain the minimum grade (i.e. B) shall be given another chance (repeat-examination) to complete the course. Candidates failing to secure the minimum marks in Dissertation shall re-submit the Dissertation. The repeat examination will be conducted only once, immediately within one month after the declaration of the results.

6.5 Once a student is declared as ‘Failed (F)’ for whatever reason, his/her grade shall carry ® with the grade obtained later. The students who fail to clear any subject even after the Repeat Examination has to Re-register for the same subject for next year and the grade obtained after re-registration will carry ®®.


7.1 A student to be eligible for the award of the P.G. Diploma should complete all courses including Dissertation obtaining atleast CGPA 3.00 out of 8.00.

7.2 A student admitted to the Post-Graduate Diploma program has to complete all the prescribed requirements within a maximum period of three years from and including the year of admission in order to be eligible for the award of the P.G. Diploma.

8. The Vice-Chancellor depending on the need may be authorized to approve the modifications, if any, in the admission process, course structure, course content and the evaluation scheme which shall be reported to the Academic Council and the Executive Council for ratification.