Defence studies, War studies, Strategic studies as currently taught only in a handful of Universities in India. Teaching and research activities are done in many universities of India, having as its primary focus on India’s national security. In all departments of Defence studies the approach to the study of national security is interdisciplinary encompassing disciplines like Geopolitics and Military Geography, Science and Technology, Economics of Defence, Conflict Management and Conflict Resolution. However the above universities / institutions despite their commendable efforts are unable to provide a wholesome education and knowledge having due regards to the international legal framework, world politics and contemporary practices. NALSAR is the only University offering such a diverse course on defence and security studies from a legal perspective.
M.A. (Security & Defence Laws) intends to equip the course participants with national and international legal framework governing the defence and security industry in the global, regional and Indian context. The course would further train the participants in developing a strong foundation in management and governance of the defence sector by drawing from experiences across the globe and comparing the same in Indian context. National defence is not only the responsibility of the armed forces but it is a responsibility of all the citizens of a nation. The aim of the defence studies is closely related to other spheres of life. Hence, the course will focus not only defence personnel of the country but will attract numerous scholars across the globe who is engaged in research related activities in defence and strategic studies.
Recent move towards liberalisation and privatisation of defence industry also demands for a progamme of this kind. With an objective of bridging the gap between Law and defence studies, the University intends to offer this Course through its Centre for Aerospace & Defence Laws (CADL).
The programme will be particularly beneficial for Serving members of the armed forces, policy makers and stakeholders working in the government departments, defence public sector undertakings, negotiators and diplomats who represent the country in the negotiations for various defence procurements, Aerospace Engineers/Students pursuing Aerospace Engineering, Law Graduates desiring specialization in defence Law, M.B.A students and Graduates undergoing various defence and strategic studies related Programmes. Hyderabad being hub of aerospace and defence sector, large number of defence professional working in this area needs upgradation of their skills towards legal and policy issues.
Also, there is a high demand for law professionals with expertise in security and defence laws. With the help of this programme, the candidates can be well placed for roles in international institutions, government department (ministries of foreign affairs, defence, justice, home affairs and development), non-governmental organisations, law firms and also in private sectors (defence and security companies).
The course is a two-year programme consisting of 12 subjects, stretched in to four semesters. The syllabus include General Principles of Law, International Security, Diplomacy and Conflict Resolution, Defence Technology and Law, International Institutions and Global Security, Defence Management and Strategic studies, Defence Contracts and Tenders, Defence Procurement Policies, Regional Security, Terrorism and Counter-Terrorism, Aviation, Space, Maritime and Cyber Security Laws. Apart from this, the candidates in the last semester are required to submit a dissertation on a topic selected by them in the concerned area, along with a field-work report for the partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree in M.A. (Security and Defence Laws).
General Principles of Law:
It is a well known legal maxim ‘ignorantia juris neminem excusat’ which means that ‘ignorance of law is no excuse’. This is one of the most fundamental principles of law followed since time immemorial. With the growing complexities in the nature of a society, legal awareness is of utmost importance as helps a student of one’s rights and obligations as a responsible citizen of a country and a member of the global community. Therefore knowledge of law can open a window of opportunities that you were previously unaware of. Though law for centuries together has been taught as a professional course however yet it is very essential that every person should be aware about the general principles of law for several reasons like, understanding of public affairs, awareness on our rights and duties. For this reason a paper on the ‘General Principles of Law’ is designed with the intention of providing the course participants with an overall understanding of the fundamental concepts and principles of law and also develop an in-depth base on the functioning of law in government, society and our lives.
International Air Law:
With the taking off of the first manned flight way back in 1903, the advent of international aviation began setting the stage for a number of additional conferences aimed at regulating international air transport and consequently leading to the Chicago regime. The technological, infrastructural, institutional, economic and human challenges have prompted those in charge of airlines and aviation-related agencies to affect a shift in their policies and approaches pursued for years. In fact, civil aviation in the new millennium would be one of the biggest growth sectors.
With these emerging issues it was of paramount importance to design a paper on the International Air Law. This paper traces the historical development of the international air law regime with a special and in-depth focus on Chicago Conference, Bilateral Air Transport Agreements and ICAO and other international aviation organization. With the increasing globalization of economies, liberalization of aviation policies, new technological developments in civil aviation, privatization of airlines and airports, and liberal and open “open skies” bilateral agreements, are the some of the new trends emerging on the horizon. The module therefore critically analyzes the existing international air law regime and the evaluates the same in the light of the emerging trend.
Principles of Management
A basic knowledge of management principles is very crucial as subsequent management courses rest on an understanding of the core concepts. Students of management, therefore, need to learn the basic concepts of management for developing application-based knowledge of the subject. Modem organizations apply management practices to achieve their goals and objectives. The complexity of businesses has further made it imperative to apply management practices, without which organizations cannot survive their competition. Application of management theories and concepts is now required in every activity of an organization.
Having regards to the significance of the subject a paper on Basic Principles of Management has been designed. The paper covers the fundamental concept and meaning of management and thereafter focuses its discussion on an in-depth study into the fundamental tenets of management namely planning, coordination, organizing, leadership, control, motivation and coordination.
Airport has been traditionally viewed as a strategic entity of a nation and therefore they have been traditionally operated to meet the just needs from that perspective. The concept of ‘airport management’ as a discipline is a new adoption borne out of the progressive traffic growth, both of passengers and cargo during the past few years. Airport leaders have now realized that complexities of airport operations can no more be handled by a mere traditional ‘organisation’ structure and have visualized that the airport management is too demanding, and started looking at it as a ‘Business’.
The paper on Airport Management caters to this growing need of having an in-depth understanding of the subject matter in the field of effectively and successfully managing an airport. The paper covers the fundamental concepts in airport management and gradually shifts its focus on the financial and commercial retail management at the airport. The soul of the paper rests in an detailed understanding of three segments of airport management i.e. Air-Side, Terminal and Service Quality Management. Aviation safety and security also receives a special focus in this regard. The paper thereupon trains the course participants in the structure of airport-airline relationship and finally discusses the emerging issues in airport management.
Domestic Air Laws in India:
The tremendous growth in the civil aviation industry in India is a product of such need to save time and energy and has become a very convenient mode of travel. Aviation is one of the few areas which developed very early prior to the independence. India is perhaps one of the most progressive countries as far as the development in the civil and general aviation is concerned. The legal regulatory regime governing the civil aviation sector in India developed way back in 1934 with the advent of the Aircraft Act of 1934 and subsequently the Aircraft Rules of 1937. However the safety, security and liability regime have developed in the past few decades and with the emerging trends there is a need to revise the entire regime.
In the light of the significance of this area, a paper on Domestic Air Laws in India has been designed. The paper begins with a general discussion on the domestic implementation of international laws and thereupon dwells into a comparative analysis of domestic implementation of international air law in EU, US and UK. Upon analyzing the international trends in the said areas the paper undertakes an in-depth study of the domestic air laws in India and begins by focusing on the Aircraft Act 1934 and the Aircraft Rules of 1937. The paper thereafter examines the domestic implementation of the aviation safety, security and liability norms and finally analyzes the contemporary issues in the field of civil aviation sector of India.
Aviation Safety, Security and Liability Laws:
With the advent of the international air transport, one of the first and foremost concern that the regulatory regimes across the globe faced was to ensure adequate safety and security of the both the passengers as well as the crew members. A regime that developed in the midst of the Second World War and subsequently the cold war and during the time where technology was also in its nascent stages of development, the only solution with the regulators was to ensure adequate legal protection to the abovementioned sections. Hence started an era of bilateral and multilateral talks leading to conclusion of similar agreements on aviation safety, security and liability.
Given the significance of the subject in the arena of international aviation a module on the Aviation Safety, Security and Liability has been designed. The module traces the development of the global air safety regulations and in particular gives a special focus on the role of ICAO. It thereupon traces the International Aviation Safety and Security Conventions and gradually shifts its focus on the International Aviation Liability regime. The final segment of the module seeks to provide the participants with an in-depth understanding of the dispute settlement mechanism in the aviation liability regime.
Air transportation is one of the most important services to offer both significant social and economic benefits. By serving tourism and trade, it contributes to economic growth. The use of commercial aviation has grown significantly over the last few decades, estimated to be more than seventy-fold since the first jet airliner flew in 1949. Current records indicate that there are more than 900 commercial airlines around the world, with a total fleet of nearly 22,000. Commercial airlines serve nearly 1,670 airports through a route network of several million kilometers. The increasing number of commercial airline companies has put more pressure on their management to continually seek profits, reduce cost, and increase revenues. Increasing demand for air transportation service has compelled airline management to take advantage of opportunities in different markets. At the same time, increasing competition among airlines necessitates that airline management seek efficiency in all their decisions to promote their profit. It is no surprise that many airlines throughout aviation history have been unable to remain in business, and in most cases, it is agreed that the demise of these airlines has been attributable to deficient management.
In order to cater to the need of training the young professionals in the arena of effective management of airlines, an innovative paper on Airline Management has been designed. The paper briefly traces the historical development of the fundamental concept of airline transport management and gradually focuses on the very crucial factor of human resource in this regard. The paper thereupon examines the regulatory framework of airline management tracing the role of ICAO, IATA and DGCA in this regard from an international and national perspective respectively. The paper finally examines the global trends in airline management and the role of airline industry in India.
Air Space and Air Traffic Management
Since the aviation industry first started needing controllers to track aircraft movements in the early 1930s, the introduction of any new technology or operational procedure has been undertaken in a very systematic way and often quite slowly. Every day, over 100,000 flights take off at airports across the world. Some are short hops to nearby destinations; some flights cross the oceans, but all have to fly in the same sky. It is estimated that up to 8% of all aviation fuel is wasted as a result of inefficient routes that aircraft have to fly. But there is an evolution in the global air navigation industry which is already having a profound impact on the way aircraft are handled in increasing numbers, more safely, efficiently and in more environmentally-responsible ways than in the past. The industry can only take this challenge so far – governments will need to look at the very institutional arrangements of their air navigation providers to bring about full efficiencies.
Keeping in mind the crucial role of the subject has to play in the management of aviation industry, a paper on Air Space and Air Traffic Management has been designed. The paper traces the fundamental concepts and principles in the arena of air space and air traffic management. The main focus of the module remains on the Air Traffic Control mechanism and the role of national and international organizations in this regard. The paper finally examines the emerging challenges authorities have faced and continue to face in the said arena.
Aviation Contracts and Tenders
Contract law lies at the heart of our system of laws and serves as the foundation of our entire society. This is not an exaggeration. It is a simple observation – one that too often goes unobserved. Our society depends upon free exchange in the marketplace at every level. The business environment is full of agreements between businesses and individuals and the business of aviation is no exception to this legal framework. While oral agreements can be used, most businesses use formal written contracts when engaging in operations. Written contracts provide individuals and businesses with a legal document stating the expectations of both parties and how negative situations will be resolved.
Having regards to the wide usage of the legal regime of contracts in the aviation business a module on Aviation Contracts and Tenders has been designed. The paper elaborately discusses the general principles of Contract as contained under the Indian Contract Act 1872 which forms the foundation for any contractual agreement including aviation agreements. The paper thereupon shifts its focus upon the international contract laws and examines the negotiating and pre-contractual norms in the field. The paper thereafter focuses on the drafting mechanisms of aviation contracts and trains the participants to focus upon the key contractual considerations. In consonance with the previous papers the module finally discusses the emergence of new forms of contracts and thereupon concentrates on a very crucial element of Aviation Tendering Mechanisms and Process.
Aviation Corporate Laws
Aviation sector in India has been transformed from an over regulated and under managed sector to a more open, liberal and investment friendly sector since 2004. Aviation business is governed by a varied range of corporate laws. Aviation Corporate Law deals with the formation and operations of corporations and is related to commercial and contract law. A corporation is a legal entity created under the laws of the state it’s incorporated within. State laws, which vary from state to state, regulate the creation, organization and dissolution of their corporations. A corporation creates a legal or “artificial person” or entity that has standing to sue and be sued, enter into contracts, and perform other duties necessary to maintain a business, separate from its stockholders.
The objective of this paper is to train the corporate law professionals in the legal formation of corporations and to construct joint ventures, licensing arrangements, mergers, acquisitions, and the countless other transactions entered into by corporations. Other areas of practice include business formations, securities law, venture capital financing, business agreements, internal forms, and business tax consultations.
Air Transport Economics and Statistics
Being the fastest means of connecting people and businesses, air transport is an important tool that enhances economic development. The benefits from air transport can only be felt if there is sufficient investment in infrastructure capacity (Airports, roads) which will enable the airline industry to provide the necessary connections to internal and world wide markets that businesses need and prosper from. Aviation provides the only rapid worldwide transportation network, which makes it essential for global business and tourism. It plays a vital role in facilitating economic growth, particularly in developing countries.
Given the significance of the subject area in mind, a paper on Air Transport Economics and Statistics has been designed. The paper begins its discussion by tracing the fundamental concepts of economics and thereupon shifts its focus on the fundamentals of air transport economics. Upon examining the evolution and economic impact of the air transportation industry the paper discusses the core principles in air transport economics and critically analyses the demand, supply and other market forces in airline-airport services. It also conducts a cost and production analysis of the air transportation industry and the changing nature of airport monopolistic markets. The paper finally discusses the nature of airport and airlines economics and infrastructure.
An airline which is to apply the principles of marketing successfully needs a thorough knowledge of current and potential markets for its services. This knowledge should encompass an understanding of the businesses in which they participate, and of the market research techniques they must apply in order to gain the knowledge they need about the marketplace. They must be able to identify “Customers” and distinguish them from “Consumers”. They must segment their markets and identify the requirements of Customers in each of the segments. Finally, and most importantly, they must examine their markets in a dynamic rather than a static sense and anticipate future changes in customer needs.
Having regards to the significance of the subject a paper on aviation marketing has been designed. The paper begins with discussing the core principles and concepts of marketing which is of paramount importance to the aviation industry. The paper thereupon emphasizes on the nature and the form of airline products and services with a special focus on service marketing in aviation industry. It also traces the advertising and promotional strategies of airlines and then focuses on the marketing and pricing strategies at the airports. The paper also examines the crucial role played by the cordial airport-airline relationship in determining pricing and financial management at airports. The paper finally dwells upon the future of aviation marketing.
Field Work Report
Field Work Reports require the student to combine theory and analyse the classroom learning with methods of observation and practice applied outside the classroom. The purpose of field reports is to describe an observed person, place, or event and to analyze that observation data in order to identify and categorize common themes in relation to the research problem(s) underpinning the study. The data is often in the form of notes taken during the observation but it can also include any form of data gathering, such as, photography, illustrations, or audio recordings.
Length and format of the Field work
The length of the Field work report should normally be between 40-50 pages and should include
Certificate signed by Field Supervisor
Certificate signed by Course Coordinator
Table of contents
Chapter One : Introduction
Chapter Two: Work done and lessons learnt
Chapter Three: Analysis
Chapter Four : Conclusion and Recommendation
Submission of Field Work Report
The candidates are required to submit one copy of the Field Work Report to the Coordinator before the deadline notified by the Centre from time to time. The Field Work Report will be evaluated for 100 marks.
The main objective of the dissertation component is to assess the research and writing skills of the students as well as to provide a platform for creative legal scholarship and can be refined and submitted for publication in scholarly journals or even serve as the basis for full-length dissertations in doctoral programmes.
Selection of topic and submission of the proposal
The students are free to select their Dissertation Topic voluntarily but it should be relevant to their field of course.
For the purposes of finalization of the Dissertation Topics, the students are required to submit a 1000 words Dissertation Proposal indicating a proposed Research Scheme.
Upon scrutinizing the Research Scheme, the Course-Coordinator will either approve or reject the proposal. In the event of rejection / modification of the proposed Research Scheme, the students will have to re-submit another Research Proposal incorporating the suggested changes within a stipulated time fixed by the Course-Coordinator.
Length and format of the Dissertation
The length of the dissertation should normally be between 80-100 pages and should include
Certificate signed by the Supervisor
Declaration signed by Student
Table of Contents
Index of Authorities (Statutes / Judgments / Other official sources)
List of Abbreviations (if required)
Methodology (Objectives – Scope and Limitations – Sources – Research Questions)
Main body of dissertation (Divided down into Chapters or Parts)
Bibliography (Books – Scholarly articles – Articles from news sources – Internet sources)
Submission of Dissertation
The students are required to submit to the Supervisor a rough draft initially for his/her suggestions/modifications. After incorporating the suggestions/ modifications as suggested by the Supervisor, the student should submit two copies of the Dissertation before the deadline notified by the Centre from time to time.
Evaluation of Dissertation
The written Dissertation will carry a total of 150 marks which will be followed by a Viva-voce examination carrying 50 marks. Dissertation shall be evaluated by one examiner and if a student secures a minimum of 50% marks in the written report, he/she may be called for viva-voce examination. In total, a student should secure a minimum of 50% marks in the Dissertation including the written report and viva-voce examination.
MODIFIED REGULATIONS FOR TWO YEAR MASTER’S DEGREE IN SECURITY & DEFENCE LAWS(MSDL)
a. Bachelor’s Degree or an equivalent Degree in any discipline from any recognized University; or
b. 3-year Degree/Diploma in Aircraft Maintenance Engineering (AME)
c. Students appearing for the final year examination of Graduation / Engineering are also eligible to apply.
Direct Admission subject to fulfillment of the eligibility criteria for the said course.
The duration of the programme is two years and the maximum period for completion of the programme is four years including the year of admission subject to payment of Continuation Fee as per the University Rules.
4.Fee Structure :
Course fee :
Rs. 40,000/- p.a. (for Defence personnel –Rs. 35,000/- p.a.)
- Convocation fee will be charged separately as per the University Rules.
- Re-peat exam fee / Supplementary Exam fee will be charged @ Rs.500/- per paper
- Continuation fee beyond the minimum duration of the course till the maximum period is Rs.5000/- per year for Master’s Programme and Rs.3000/- per year for Post-Graduate Diploma Programmes.
- Boarding & Lodging charges at campus (subject to availability) during classes / exam will be extra as per the University Rules.
Note: The University reserves the right to revise the Fee structure from time to time.
5. CONDUCT OF THE PROGRAMME
The Master’s Programme will have four semesters. Each Semester will have Onsite intense sessions by the subject experts, followed by Online session where participants will work on the case studies and assignments and upload them on the dedicated web platform / submit them by email. The students can contact / communicate by email with the subject experts pertaining to various queries on the concerned subject. Relevant course material will be uploaded on the website and can be accessed through their login id.
Face to Face contact sessions will be conducted for seven days in a semester at Hyderabad by the subject experts. Suggested reference guidance would be provided at the contact sessions. Each subject shall consist of 15 teaching hours which will come to 60 teaching hours per semester for three semesters. Case study analysis will be part of the concerned subjects and will be discussed in onsite sessions. Attendance at the onsite session is not compulsory.
The conduct of the programme involves uploading of updated course material, assignments etc. on the website.
6. EVALUATION SCHEME
Each paper shall carry 100 marks. The distribution of marks shall be as follows:
|End Semester Examination
Submission of Dissertation
6.1 (a) Guidelines for Research Project:
6.1 (b) Guidelines for Case Study
6.1 (c) Guidelines for Dissertation
6.1 (c) Guidelines for Foot Notes
6.2 Award of Grades
The performance of the students would be evaluated on a seven point scale with corresponding grade values as mentioned below:
|Percentage of Marks
|80 and above
6.3 Calculation of CGPA
Cumulative Grade Point Average (CGPA) is arrived at by dividing the sum of the products of Grade Values and the Course Credits in each course by the total number of credits in all the subjects.
6.4 A student to be successful should obtain a minimum of 50% marks or the equivalent grade, i.e., B in every subject/Field Work/Dissertation. A student who secures the minimum required 50% marks will not be declared pass until he/she submits the project as prescribed. However, the candidate who fails to obtain the minimum grade (i.e., B) shall be given chance(s) to re-appear for the examination whenever the same is conducted till the completion of the maximum period, i.e., five years from the date of admission on payment of repeat examination fee. Students failing to secure the minimum marks in the Field work / Dissertation shall re-submit the same.
7. Award of the Degree
7.1 A student to be eligible for the award of the Degree should complete all courses including Field Work and Dissertation obtaining atleast CGPA 3.00 out of 8.00.
7.2 A student admitted to the Masters Degree program has to complete all the prescribed requirements within a maximum period of five years from and including the year of admission in order to be eligible for the award of the Degree.
8. Refund of Fee in case of withdrawal of admission
a) In case of withdrawal before the commencement of first round of contact (on-site) classes, 10% of the course fee for the first year shall be retained by the University towards administrative charges;
b) In case of withdrawal after the first round of contact (on-site) classes, 20% of the course fee for the first year shall be retained by the University towards administrative charges;
c) In respect of students who withdraw their candidature after the second round of contact classes, total course fee for the first year shall be retained by the University towards administrative charges;
d) No refund shall be made in case of withdrawals in the second year.
9. The Vice-Chancellor depending on the need may be authorized to approve the modifications, if any, in the admission process, course structure, course content and the evaluation scheme which shall be reported to the Academic Council and the Executive Council for ratification.